To create an Swedish primary patronym, the suffix -son (= 'son') or -dotter (= 'daughter') is added to the genitive form of the father's name. You will find the genitive forms of Swedish names in the grammar tables on the respective name pages. In Swedish, usually just the suffix -s is added directly to the name.
German merchants from the Hanseatic League (Hanse) introduced the first hereditary surnames to the Swedes. The Swedish nobility were the first to adopt surnames and they constructed their own ones as well.
The newly created nobility names consisted of both Swedish and German elements. For more information see Nobility Name.
In the 17th and 18th centuries members of the middle class adopted surnames as well. Like the nobility names, ornamental names consisted of two elements, which were freely and creatively combined. The first element was often taken from a farm name.
Typical Swedish ornamental names are:
You can find a lot of ornamental name elements and their meanings here.
A special kind of nicknames which became surnames in Sweden were soldier names.
In Sweden also so called humanist names are used. They are usually a given name or a (part of a) surname combined with a Latin or Greek ending.
When hereditary surnames became mandatory in 1901, many Swedes who had not taken another surname before, decided to "freeze" their primary patronyms so they became secondary, hereditary patronyms instead and could function as a surname. They are the most common kind of surnames in Sweden.
The most common secondary patronyms in Sweden (2020) are:
Real farm names are sometimes used in Sweden as well, although ornamental names (see above) are far more common.