A nickname is a familiar and/or humorous name given to a person instead of or as well as the real name.
Nickname literally means 'an additional name', from Old English an eke name (13th century), which was later misinterpreted as a neke name (15th century).
Old English eaca = 'an increase'
The Old Norse cognate is auka-nefi = 'nickname'
Old Norse nicknames were also called bynames. You can find an explanation of those and long lists here.